Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

View previous topic View next topic Go down

Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by kazaki03 on 2011-04-05, 23:10

Okay...so this isn't really accurate. This is based from my self-study, so don't expect everything just yet.

Here we go! smile

---------------------------------------------------------

First of all, there are two kinds of ways in using Japanese: Polite and Casual. Polite sentences end in -desu, while casual sentences may not end in -desu, or may have another ending such as -nda/-no da, -wa, -na, -ne, -no, no de, etc.

But first, here's the important stuff.

BASIC GRAMMAR:

The basics of Japanese relies on this pattern:

[subject] wa [predicate] desu.
[subject] は [predicate] です。

Note that the character is ha(は) instead of wa(わ). It's read and used that way for these sentences.

Examples:

Watashi wa Kazaki desu.
私はカザキです。
(I am Kazaki.)

Anata wa Shikata desu.
あなたは志方です。
(You are Shikata.)

Kare wa kakkoii desu.
彼はかっこいいです。
(He is cool.)

Kanojo wa utsukushii desu.
彼女は美しいです。
(She is beautiful.)

The -wa is an automatic article for subjects. The -desu is like the "is/are" of the sentence. If you have heard of sentences that use -ga instead of -wa, it's just emphasizing the predicate and not the subject.

Kanojo ga hashiridashimashita.
彼女が走り出しました。
Kanojo ga hasiridashita.
彼女が走り出した。
(She ran away/She escaped.)

For casual sentences, it depends on the situation. Sometimes, they don't put the -desu. But here are the meanings of the suffixes I mentioned above:

-desu(です): Equivalent to "is/are". This means stating a fact.
Shikata wa utsukushii desu.
志方は美しいです。
(Shikata is beautiful.)

-ka(か): For question.
Shikata wa utsukushii desu ka?
志方は美しいですか?
Shikata wa utsukushii no ka?
志方は美しいのか?
(Is Shikata beautiful?)

-nda/-no da(んだ/のだ): Used mostly at the end of the sentence, also stating a fact, but less formally.
Shikata wa utsukushii nda/no da.
志方は美しいんだ/のだ。
(Shikata is beautiful [and that's a fact].)

-(no) wa「(の)わ」: Used by women to soften sentences.
Shikata wa utsukushii (no) wa.
志方は美しい(の)わ。

-na(な): Used mostly by guys. This is like a rhetorical question.
Shikata wa utsukushii na.
(Shikata is beautiful, isn't she?)

-ne(ね): Used mostly by girls. Same meaning as -na.
Shikata wa utsukushii ne.
(Shikata is beautiful, isn't she?)

-no(の): Used for questions, as mentioned above.

-no de(ので): Used for clauses.
Shikata wa utsukushii no de, sore wa hontou desu.
志方は美しいので、それは本当です。
(Shikata is beautiful, and it's true.)

-yo(よ): Used for emphasizing a fact.
Shikata wa utsukushii yo!
志方は美しいよ!
(Shikata is [really] beautiful!)

These can be combined, and could mean different things. For example, when you want to emphasize the fact that you've already seen a certain movie, but someone is persistent about watching it, you can say:

Mou mita nda yo ne!
もう見たんだよね!
(I've already seen it, you know! [I already told you before!])

For the next lessons, when I put a P before a sentence, it's the polite form. If it's a C, then it's casual.

PRONOUNS

As some might know, Japanese pronouns depend on the gender of the speaker. Here's the standards:

MALE

SUPERFORMAL: Watakushi 私(I), Otaku/Anata お宅/あなた(You)
FORMAL/POLITE/STANDARD: Watashi 私(I), Anata あなた(You)
CASUAL: Boku 僕(I), Kimi 君(You)
INFORMAL: Ore 俺(I), Omae お前(You)

FEMALE

SUPERFORMAL: Watakushi 私(I), Otaku/Anata お宅/あなた(You)
FORMAL/POLITE/STANDARD: Watashi わたし(I), Anata あなた(You)
CASUAL/INFORMAL: Watashi/Atashi 私/あたし(I), Anata/Anta/Kimi あなた/あんた/君(You)

Superformal is used for occassions such as weddings, graduations, formal celebrations, etc.
Formal or polite is the standard form.
Casual & informal used for everyday life.

ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are placed before the word it modifies. Sometimes, you can make it as a predicate (like the previous examples, utsukushi + i 美し + い).

Japanese adjectives could end with -i or -na, depending on the word.

Ookina sekai 大きな世界(Big world) - Ooki + na
Chiisana sekai 小さな世界(Small world) Chiisa + na
Kakkoii hito かっこいい人(Cool person) Kakkoi + i
Kawaii hito かわいい人(Cute person) Kawai + i

Kore wa ookina sekai (desu). (This is a big world.)
これは大きな世界(です)。
Sore wa chiisana sekai (desu). (That is a small world.)
それは小さな世界(です)。
Kare wa kakkoii hito (desu). (He is a cool guy.)
彼はかっこいい人(です)。
Kanojo wa kawaii hito (desu). (She is a cute person.)
彼女はかわいい人(です)。

VERBS:

Actually, -desu is a form of a verb (like "is" is a verb itself). Of course, we have past, present, and future (not quite sure about this). I'm going to give an example verb here, the word "utau" 歌う, meaning "sing".

POLITE FORM

DICTIONARY FORM:utaimasu 歌います(sing)
PAST:utaimashita 歌いました(sang)
FUTURE: utatte ikimasu 歌って行きます(will sing)
PROGRESSIVE:utatte imasu 歌っています(singing)
SUGGESTIVE FORM: utaimashou 歌いましょう(let us sing)
REQUEST FORM: utatteitai desu 歌っていたいです(I want to sing)

CASUAL FORM

DICTIONARY FORM: utau 歌う(sing)
COMMAND FORM: utatte 歌って(sing) <-- meaning the person is commanding someone to sing.
PAST: utatta or utatte ita 歌った/歌っていた(sang)
FUTURE: utatte yuku 歌って行く(iku is mostly read as yuku) (will sing)
PROGRESSIVE: utatte iru 歌っている(singing)
SUGGESTIVE FORM: utaou 歌おう(let's sing)
REQUEST FORM: utatteitai/utattetai 歌っていたい/歌ってたい(I want to sing)

Someone really needs to expand this section. Different verbs take different changes. Or perhaps I could make another post...

DIRECT OBJECTS

-wo (を) is used for direct objects. The pattern is:

[subject] wa [direct object] wo [predicate/action].
[subject] は [direct object] を [predicate/action]。


P: Shikata wa "Katayoku no Tori" wo utatte imasu.
志方は「方欲の鳥」を歌っています。
C: Shikata wa "Katayoku no Tori" wo utatte iru.
志方は「方欲の鳥」を歌っている。
(Shikata is singing "Katayoku no Tori".)

P: Shikata wa tori wo suki desu.
志方は鳥を好きです。
C: Shikata wa tori wo suki.
(Shikata likes birds.)
志方は鳥を好き。

PREPOSITIONS

-de(で): mostly for places (usually another place).
-ni(に): mostly for time or the place you are in.
-e(へ)(sometimes read as he): used for destinations.

P: Watashi wa Nihon de ikimashita.
私は日本で行きました。
C: Watashi wa Nihon de itta.
私は日本で行った。
(I went to Japan.)

P: Watashi wa kono heya ni nemurimasu.
私はこの部屋に眠ります。
C: Watashi wa kono heya ni nemuru.
私はこの部屋に眠る。
(I sleep in this room.)

P: Hikooki wa Kanada e tobimasu.
飛行機はカナダへ飛びます。
C: Hikooki wa Kanada e tobu.
飛行機はカナダへ飛ぶ。
(The airplane flies to Canada.)

SUFFIXES

-tachi (たち): plural.

Watashi-tachi 私たち-> We
Anata-tachi あなたたち-> You (Plural)
Shikata-tachi 志方たち-> Shikata and others/et. al.
Kalafina-tachi カラフィナたち-> Kalafina (and it's band members)

Note that -tachi is also used for groups and bands.

-ra(ら): also plural.

Bokura 僕ら-> We (male)

-san(さん): equivalent to Mr., Ms. or Mrs.

Shikata-san 志方さん(Ms. Shikata)
Yamada-san 山田さん(Mrs. Yamada)
Yoshi-san よしさん(Mr. Yoshi)

-kun(くん/君): used for guys (especially cute guys)

Sora-kun 空くん
Ryou-kun 両くん
Masato-kun 正人くん

-chan(ちゃん): used for girls (especially cute girls)

Naoko-chan 直子ちゃん
Midori-chan みどりちゃん
Nanako-chan 奈々子ちゃん

-sama(様): for people of high-rank, such as kings, gods and goddesses, priests, leaders, etc.

Kami-sama 神様 (God)
Ou-sama 王様 (King)
Ouji-sama 王子様 (Prince)

---------------------------------------------------------
PART TWO COMING SOON!
I hope you guys enjoy!
Just comment your suggestions, violent reactions, corrections, etc. I will accept everything. smile
avatar
kazaki03
Gold Member
Gold Member

VIP Award Gold Award
Gender : Female
Posts : 1403
Reputation : 12
Join date : 2010-09-15
Age : 26
Country Flag : Philippines
welcome to ASH! ^^ - phio69 thank you. so much. - phio69 Happy 2011~! - Wasabi Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin Pursue your dreams, you have my support! :) - -ALT- Yay for being a Gold Member!~ - Nonomino For awesomeness! - phio_chan arigatou na. here&#39;s a moon for u. ^-^ - yukihime03 You&#39;re so sweet~! - Ellie_T For our dear Hymmnos singer! Thank you for your lovely songs~ - Ellie_T Grats! You have over 1000 posts! :D - Kyoki

View user profile http://www.kazaki-music.asia/

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by Artesox on 2011-04-07, 11:05

ღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღ

LOVED IT

ღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღღ

Well, I think that it is the basic of Japanese (I think)
It's kinda hard do learn, but I could get it : >

The Polite and Casual thing are kinda confusing (Why Japan ;-; ? )
But I got the idea : )
Now I'm really planning on learning Japanese
avatar
Artesox
Bronze Member
Bronze Member

VIP Award
Gender : Male
Posts : 383
Reputation : 12
Join date : 2010-07-20
Age : 23
Country Flag : Brazil
for being a member at ASH ^^ - phio69 For being fans of Akiko Shikata like me~ - Wasabi thank you. so much. - phio69 Happy 2011~! - Wasabi Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin For our very own talented writer ;) Yay for being a Gold Member!~ - Nonomino You&#39;re so awesome!!! &lt;3 - Kyoki You guys are awesome. :D - kazaki03 Thank you for being awesome Shikata friends. =) - kazaki03 For following me on Twitter. =) - kazaki03 For awesomeness! - phio_chan

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by kazaki03 on 2011-04-07, 13:39

Most Japanese text books will only make you learn the Polite form.
But I'll teach you guys the casual form because it's more...well...casual. And used in anime/j-pop songs. xD

Although, since Shikata is a very polite person, she will almost always use the polite form, which is cute! xD
avatar
kazaki03
Gold Member
Gold Member

VIP Award Gold Award
Gender : Female
Posts : 1403
Reputation : 12
Join date : 2010-09-15
Age : 26
Country Flag : Philippines
welcome to ASH! ^^ - phio69 thank you. so much. - phio69 Happy 2011~! - Wasabi Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin Pursue your dreams, you have my support! :) - -ALT- Yay for being a Gold Member!~ - Nonomino For awesomeness! - phio_chan arigatou na. here&#39;s a moon for u. ^-^ - yukihime03 You&#39;re so sweet~! - Ellie_T For our dear Hymmnos singer! Thank you for your lovely songs~ - Ellie_T Grats! You have over 1000 posts! :D - Kyoki

View user profile http://www.kazaki-music.asia/

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by LavenderYuki on 2011-04-07, 15:07

Yup the first thing they teach you in Japanese class (or any other foreign language, I assume) is the polite form. the casual form is not after you learn all the basic grammars and tenses. I found casual form is a bit confusing to memorized and understand for some reason.

lol I remembered I asked my sensei to teach me Osaka-ben and he just laughed. I just found that dialect very fun to hear.
avatar
LavenderYuki
Active Member
Active Member

Posts : 79
Reputation : 5
Join date : 2010-11-29
for being a member at ASH ^^ - phio69 For being fans of Akiko Shikata like me~ - Wasabi Happy new year! - Artesox Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin For Rurutia&#39;s little guardian angel :D - -ALT-

View user profile http://mizrock20.livejournal.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by kazaki03 on 2011-04-07, 22:59

I don't know much on other Japanese dialects though. But I hear that Kansai-ben is where most comedians come from.

The easy way to memorize the casual form is watching anime/Japanese shows in original Japanese audio (with subtitles of course xD) or listening to J-pop. That's how I did it. =)
avatar
kazaki03
Gold Member
Gold Member

VIP Award Gold Award
Gender : Female
Posts : 1403
Reputation : 12
Join date : 2010-09-15
Age : 26
Country Flag : Philippines
welcome to ASH! ^^ - phio69 thank you. so much. - phio69 Happy 2011~! - Wasabi Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin Pursue your dreams, you have my support! :) - -ALT- Yay for being a Gold Member!~ - Nonomino For awesomeness! - phio_chan arigatou na. here&#39;s a moon for u. ^-^ - yukihime03 You&#39;re so sweet~! - Ellie_T For our dear Hymmnos singer! Thank you for your lovely songs~ - Ellie_T Grats! You have over 1000 posts! :D - Kyoki

View user profile http://www.kazaki-music.asia/

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by Artesox on 2011-04-08, 00:46

Midori no mori de nemuru tori < Casual form right?

Anyway, good to know that casual form is more like an eh... I don't know the english word for that : <
I will edit this post later ;-;
avatar
Artesox
Bronze Member
Bronze Member

VIP Award
Gender : Male
Posts : 383
Reputation : 12
Join date : 2010-07-20
Age : 23
Country Flag : Brazil
for being a member at ASH ^^ - phio69 For being fans of Akiko Shikata like me~ - Wasabi thank you. so much. - phio69 Happy 2011~! - Wasabi Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin For our very own talented writer ;) Yay for being a Gold Member!~ - Nonomino You&#39;re so awesome!!! &lt;3 - Kyoki You guys are awesome. :D - kazaki03 Thank you for being awesome Shikata friends. =) - kazaki03 For following me on Twitter. =) - kazaki03 For awesomeness! - phio_chan

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by LavenderYuki on 2011-04-09, 16:01

kazaki03 wrote:I don't know much on other Japanese dialects though. But I hear that Kansai-ben is where most comedians come from.

The easy way to memorize the casual form is watching anime/Japanese shows in original Japanese audio (with subtitles of course xD) or listening to J-pop. That's how I did it. =)

yup Manzai. I love it. my favorite overused word "Nandeyanen" and "Kora akan" XD

I did it that way too but since I don't really watch much animu and drama or whatnot, I had to use the 'formula' my sensei gave me. I'll share it here if I can find them. don't remember where I put my books.
avatar
LavenderYuki
Active Member
Active Member

Posts : 79
Reputation : 5
Join date : 2010-11-29
for being a member at ASH ^^ - phio69 For being fans of Akiko Shikata like me~ - Wasabi Happy new year! - Artesox Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin For Rurutia&#39;s little guardian angel :D - -ALT-

View user profile http://mizrock20.livejournal.com

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by kazaki03 on 2011-04-10, 10:57

Cool! Maybe you could also teach us other Japanese dialects! smile
avatar
kazaki03
Gold Member
Gold Member

VIP Award Gold Award
Gender : Female
Posts : 1403
Reputation : 12
Join date : 2010-09-15
Age : 26
Country Flag : Philippines
welcome to ASH! ^^ - phio69 thank you. so much. - phio69 Happy 2011~! - Wasabi Happy Holidays Guys! - Marvin Pursue your dreams, you have my support! :) - -ALT- Yay for being a Gold Member!~ - Nonomino For awesomeness! - phio_chan arigatou na. here&#39;s a moon for u. ^-^ - yukihime03 You&#39;re so sweet~! - Ellie_T For our dear Hymmnos singer! Thank you for your lovely songs~ - Ellie_T Grats! You have over 1000 posts! :D - Kyoki

View user profile http://www.kazaki-music.asia/

Back to top Go down

Re: Basic Japanese Grammar (Part 1)

Post by Sponsored content


Sponsored content


Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top

- Similar topics

 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum